El defecto de transmisión de valores y particularmente aquellas que están vinculadas a la noción de autoridad, es a menudo evocado como un factor determinante de la delincuencia de menores, es sobre esta base que los gobiernos sucesivos han tomado iniciativas desde el ano 1998. Dichas iniciativas tratan de dar mas espacio a los imperativos y sanciones en el tratamiento judiciario de menores delincuentes. Esta posición viene a contrariar las representaciones de los profesionales de la justicia de menores, que ven en esta evolución una desaprobación radical de los valores que les han sido transmitidos. A partir de la lectura que hacen de la ordenanza nº 45-174 del dos de febrero sobre la infancia delincuente. Ellos consideran que se trata de una ruptura radical en la misión de esta justicia especializada y que esas nuevas orientaciones harían pasar de un modelo de protección a un modelo represivo obligando así a adherir a los valores contrarios sobre los cuales habían fundado sus bases profesionales.
Este artículo reconsidera esta presentación de la cuestión y busca a poner de relieve lo que hace transmisión y continuidad en el seno de ese movimiento. Para ello el procede a una relectura de la ordenanza y de la exposición de los motivos y examina el asunto interrogando los modelos psicológicos y psiquiátricos sobre los cuales se apoyan los partidarios de la ruptura. Esta relectura, hace aparecer que es la evolución de las representaciones de la ordenanza y no la ordenanza misma que ha conducido a un impase sobre la dimensión represiva y complicada que ella contiene. También hace aparecer que es a partir de una representación muy limitada de lo terapéutico esencialmente de aquella de una clínica limitada al modelo de la psicoterapia individual) que se ha forjado la convicción clásica que la justicia de menores sufre de una influencia excesiva de la clínica que se opondría al primado del « imperativo educativo » Es entonces el modelo educativo de ayuda forzada ha sido promovida por la ordenanza del 45 contrariamente alo que ha podido dejar pensar la lectura clásica que ha sido hecha.
Refiriéndose a la dinámica de los adolescentes difíciles, los autores consideran que el modelo educativo que hace la asociación entre ayuda y sumisión es el que esta mas apto a tomar en cuenta las necesidades educativas y terapéuticas de esos jóvenes. Cuando se interrogando la ruptura que algunos ponen de relieve defienden la idea del hecho que es importante de basar la transmisión de valores educativos de la justicia de los menores sobre la transmisión de ese modelo que en dichas condiciones no exige la re-interrogación de la validez de la tradición clínica valorizada de momento que ella se ve conducida a adaptar su modelo y sus practicas a las particularidades psicopatológicas de los adolescentes seguidos en dicho contexto.
Adolescence, 2009, T. 27, n°2, pp. 355-374.
The « truck jumping game » is one of the most troubling scenes in Stanley Kubrick’s film A Clockwork Orange. The title of this film, which came out in the 1960’s, is itself intriguing. Today A Clockwork Orange is no less than what it was in 1969: a strangely modern reflection of a dystopia of humankind. Better yet, A Clockwork Orange turns out to be more relevant than ever. We see in it that psychical malaise which is uncontained and finds only the city streets in which to, not say, but show and act the impasses in which the subject is trapped.
The spectacle of this film, and more especially, one its scenes, « the truck jumping game » allows us to see that the notion of risk, from the Greek Rizikon, helps to widen even more the metapsychological analysis of the phenomenon of addiction. The Risk-taker, or the « riskers », would be those who best illustrate the Freudian definition of drive. This recovery of tension is, we argue here, worth much more than the assuaging of tension, at least for those subjects who place themselves in a position of dependence that is as harmful as it is indispensable to the maintenance of a vital homeostasis.
Adolescence, 2009, T. 27, n°2, pp. 487-495.
The increasing occurrence in adolescents of behavior disorders, risky conducts, addictive appetence, depression, and suicidal gestures signals an entrance into the pathology of bonds and of dependence. Politicians are not blind and deaf to this issue and to what is at stake, which is vital to the future of all. They have been aware of it for more than twenty years, making adolescence a public health priority. New ideas have thus emerged, giving rise to new hopes and innovative initiatives, but also bringing difficulties and failures. The experience of a psychiatric ward for adolescents shows in an exemplary way the limits of « regulating » politics when it comes to the psychical care of adolescents in a « borderline » register. Administrative restrictions tied to outmoded regulations or to new recommendations supposed to promote good practices paradoxically hinder their working. One should not underestimate the defensive aspect of administrative tasks and discourse, like the clout of some currents of thought which denigrate the psychodynamic bases of « relational treatment ». The risk may be linked to the irresistible rise of the « technocratic model » which presents itself as a new utopia, ignoring its inscription within the « positivist » current of thought and the subtle use that can be made of this by the powers-that-be. However, the « psychists », through their direct interventions or their « interstitial practice » (Roussillon, 1991), must undoubtedly retain a decisive place in the care facility, which can not do without their vigilance regarding the « unthought » aspects of the structure, the ephemeral passions that run through it and the defensive strategies it resorts to.
Adolescence, 2009, T. 27, n°2, pp. 469-485
Four years after the collaborative report from INSERM (National Institute of Health and Medical Research) on « Conduct Disorders », which led to turmoil among professionals and gave rise to the group « No conduct-0 », the current situation is far from reassuring. The general direction and research structures of INSERM have been renovated in a way unfavorable to Psychiatry, and its collaborative report on learning disorders did not show that INSERM had really integrated the necessity of rethinking the very structure of these collaborative assessments in the field of mental health. In addition, we are now witnessing a revival of the early detection of so-called « future delinquents » in day care centers, as well as a thorough attack against preschool and RASED (Networks of Specialized Help for Pupils in Difficulty). All this movement towards biologizing thought threatens the most vulnerable creates huge risks for the place of the human sciences in our culture and our universities.
Adolescence, 2009, T. 27, n°2, pp. 461-467.
The article studies the hypothesis that there is a desire for control at the heart of every pedagogical relationship and that the controlling relation, whatever form it may take, represents a true defensive formation, masking the lack reveal by the encounter with the other. Within this scenario, one finds the rules common to every controlling relationship: the instrumentalization of the other and the impossibility, for the latter, of breaking out of the cycle of an exchange in which he gives more than he gets, such rupture being constructed as something unjustifiable, necessitating the use of force, an act of rebellion or violence. How do adolescents remain desiring subjects at school ? How do they escape from the controlling relation ? In the ambivalent relationship that they construct with authority, what strategies do they employ ? This investigation joins philosophical inquiry with a sociological viewpoint.
Adolescence, 2009, T. 27, n°2, pp. 447-459.
In the context of neo-liberalism and the collapse of social meta-frameworks, the disavowal of generational difference provokes a crisis in cultural transmission at school by avoiding the conflictual nature of Oedipal conflicts and attacking psychical and cultural organizers. Adolescent suffering, violence and transgression should be understood as symptoms and consequences of the political idealization of perversion and of regression to the infantile in the socio-historical situation.
Adolescence, 2009, T. 27, n°2, pp. 431-445.
This article gives the early findings of research on legal briefs carried out in one jurisdiction belonging to the Paris metropolitan area regarding violent infraction committed by minors. Using dossiers treated by judges for children, the author first proposes a typology of these instances of juvenile violence (« shady » violence, virile violence, neighbor-on-neighbor violence, intra-family violence), with the reminder that more than 80% of these involve people who are known to each other. Then the authors analyze some salient features of these minors’ profile and background: sex and age, family situation, place of residence and school history. In their conclusion, the authors explain that this research reveals instances of low-intensity violence occurring among people who know each other, for very diverse and very classic reasons in adolescence, as a result of conflicts that seem not to be new, but which are increasingly treated as legal issues (judicialized) in our society.
Adolescence, 2009, T. 27, n°2, pp. 415-429.
The authors, after describing various modifications of the edict of February 2, 1945 which have profoundly changed the juvenile justice model, analyze the impact of this calling into question.
Adolescence, 2009, T. 27, n°2, pp. 399-413.
This article revisits the 5 year analysis-inspired research-action by a psychiatric team working with adolescents incarcerated in a Juvenile Detention Center. It gives details of the political difficulties that the deontological and technical methodology of this work encountered when dealing with psychiatric colleagues who intervene in prison, with the penal administration and with Court Youth Protection. It locates within the more general crisis in Healthcare-Justice relations a certain trend towards psychiatric minimalism when dealing with incarcerated adolescents. At the level of the participants’ social psychology, it exposes how difficult it is for healthcare to remain independent within prisons, with regard to the difficult personalities of some prisoners, the humanist side of the Penal Administration, and the re-integration of Judicial Youth Protective Services into prisons for minors since the beginning of the 20th century. It critiques the principle axes of the rhetoric known as « ad hoc », which provides ideological and technical support for 7 youth facilities with considerable budgets. Lastly, it shows the limits, due to the structural character of security-based penal authoritarianism and the action of the stock market, of attempting to organize the incarceration of minors according to the model of a medico-social institution.
Adolescence, 2009, T. 27, n°2, pp. 383-397.
Though in theory a closed place can have therapeutic value for de-structured, violent or delinquent adolescents, in practice to obtain this objective considerable resources are necessary, not only material but human. The author of this article doubts that in the long run such resources can be maintained, which means that the caregiving quality within such « walls » would always be unpredictable to say the least…
Adolescence, 2009, T. 27, n°2, pp. 377-381