Archives par mot-clé : Gift


»This article presents some recent developments in the theory of transmission. The author recalls the earliest contributions to this theory ; traumas endured by ancestors may be the source of the trouble, especially if they were experienced as shameful by the descendants and kept secret. But transmission has a structuring character for everyone; it is the basis for the establishment of the law, for the set-up of the family and for the attachment to ideals. Founding an essential axis for ethics, the notion of responsibility is also inscribed in a process of transmission. The author suggests that the parents’ gift to and the attitude toward their child plays a role in this, by giving impetus to acknowledgement in the child, in both senses of the word: that of gratitude and that of identifying the other as different.»


»Adolescence discovers that growing up incurs debts. The child was unable to grasp this. But the adolescent does not know how to pay back this debt ; he does not feel capable of it. Whence the tendency to challenge it, a way of both for seeing it and of keeping it at a distance; what results from this is protest, which stretches the bond while preserving it.»


The sacrament of Confirmation is one of the three sacraments together with the Christening and the Eucharist which builds the Christian initiation in the Catholic Church. This was the concern of a young teenager who went for psychoanalysis and it occurred that the religious Rite was actually questioned in its interaction with the process of young adulthood. On one hand, the confirmation can be seen as a symbolic act because of the reference to the Holy Spirit and in the fact that it includes some special gestures and words which will allow the confirmed to be integrated into the Christian community. This marks a maturation of the Christian faith. It allows the Confirmed to make its own appropriation of the questions of life, death and find his (or her) identity. It also marks the position of the confirmed in relation with his (or her) forefathers. It brings a support by the representatives of the same faith who are passing this inheritance. This sacrament can also bring new responsibilities. On the other hand, it does not take into account the physical transformations in the teenager who has to integrate his or her gender. After all, it seems that it is set in ideal world.

Jean-Claude Métraux : from the victim to the actor

This paper presents an intent of synthesis of the symposium and outlines its main results : interpretation of clinical data and critical discussion of post-traumatic disorders ; child soldiers’ psychology; added problem of exile ; reflexions on societal and social memories ; usual trend to the grief dimension; dynamics between individual and community, psychis and society. Il will be proponed to reverse the usual perspective, which implies a simultaneous partial redefinition of psychotherapist’s role, engaged citizen and social actor on the first lines of History.

Philippe Givre : philia and adolescence

The central issue of this text is to see whether the thematic of Philia may be relevant in some way to the psychoanalytical approach. Psychoanalysis’ affinities with Eros do not argue in favour of this, unless we take into account conceptualizations of Winnicott, who links friendship with the notions of “ relation to the ego ” and the “ capacity for being alone ”. From this one gathers that the gift of friendship would be involved in the process of affective maturation, whose most elaborated phenomenon is the capacity for being alone in the presence of the other. The friend cannot be viewed as a mere model or as the equivalent of a self-portrait. Neither can he be reduced to another oneself, though he holds something that is due to me. If teenagers have a preference for friendship, it is because the gift of friendship is indispensable for them in the starting and accompanying the movements of subjectivation of the adolescens. In this sense, all friendship is contemporary with a subjective rearrangement since it conditions the possibility of emerging as what is proper to ourselves.