Secularity, a correlate of the meritocratic project, was the instrument of a political construction of a Mitsein today in crisis. Secularity, as a principle of reasonable government of men, excluded neither violent solutions nor naturalist representations of the school trajectories. But School is today confronted with the “ pluralist time ”, with an increasing request for cultural and religious plurality. And this democratic School, under the apparent social and political neutrality which sign the secularist ideology, reverses the relation with the feeling of social injustice : the more the School seems open to the greatest number, the more school failure is perceived as the singular productions of individuals, whence this recurring feeling of individual and even family and social dishonor. This academic case is to be seized through the prism of the refusal of politics by the school institution. The school question, according to us, is today nourished by the sexual and ethnic and social inequalities faced by the institution itself.